The Swift Library Plugin provides the tasks, conventions and conventions for building a Swift library. In particular, a Swift library provides functionality that can be used by consumers (i.e., other projects using this plugin or the Swift Application Plugin).

Usage

Example 1. Applying the Swift Library Plugin
build.gradle
plugins {
    id 'swift-library'
}
build.gradle.kts
plugins {
    `swift-library`
}

Build variants

The Swift Library Plugin understands the following dimensions. Read the introduction to build variants for more information.

Build types - always set to debug and release

The build type controls the debuggability as well as the optimization of the generated binaries.

  • debug - Generate debug symbols and don’t optimized the binary

  • release - Generate debug symbols and optimize, but extract the debug symbols from the binary

Linkages - default to shared

The linkage expresses whether a shared library or static library should be created. Libraries can produce a shared library, a static library or both.

The linkage can be configured as follows:

Example 2. Configure library linkages
build.gradle
library {
    linkage = [Linkage.STATIC, Linkage.SHARED]
}
build.gradle.kts
library {
    linkage.set(listOf(Linkage.STATIC, Linkage.SHARED))
}
Target machines - defaults to the build host

The target machine expresses which machines the application expects to run. A target machine is identified by its operating system and architecture. Gradle uses the target machine to decide which tool chain to choose based on availability on the host machine.

The target machine can be configured as follows:

Example 3. Configure library target machines
build.gradle
library {
    targetMachines = [
        machines.linux.x86_64,
        machines.macOS.x86_64
    ]
}
build.gradle.kts
library {
    targetMachines.set(listOf(machines.linux.x86_64, machines.macOS.x86_64))
}

Tasks

The following diagram shows the relationships between tasks added by this plugin.

Note the default linkage of a Swift library is shared linkage as shown in the diagram.

swift shared library task graph
Figure 1. Swift Library Plugin default task graph

With static linkage, the diagram changes to the following:

swift static library task graph
Figure 2. Swift Library Plugin static library only task graph

Variant-dependent Tasks

The Swift Library Plugin creates tasks based on variants of the library component. Read the introduction to build variants for more information. The following diagrams show the relationship between variant-dependent tasks.

swift library variant task graph
Figure 3. Swift Library Plugin variant-dependent task graph
Depending on the linkage property
compileVariantSwift (e.g. compileDebugSwift and compileReleaseSwift) - SwiftCompile

Depends on: All tasks that contribute source files to the compilation :: Compiles Swift source files using the selected compiler.

linkVariant (e.g. linkDebug and linkRelease) - LinkSharedLibrary (shared linkage)

Depends on: All tasks which contribute to the link libraries, including linkVariant and createVariant tasks from projects that are resolved via project dependencies :: Links shared library from compiled object files using the selected linker.

createVariant (e.g. createDebug and createRelease) - CreateStaticLibrary (static linkage)

Creates static library from compiled object files using selected archiver

assembleVariant (e.g. assembleDebug and assembleRelease) - Task (lifecycle)

Depends on: linkVariant (shared linkage) or createVariant (static linkage) :: Aggregates tasks that assemble the specific variant of this library.

Lifecycle Tasks

The Swift Library Plugin attaches some of its tasks to the standard lifecycle tasks documented in the Base Plugin chapter — which the Swift Library Plugin applies automatically:

assemble - Task (lifecycle)

Depends on: linkDebug when linkage includes shared or createDebug otherwise. :: Aggregate task that assembles the debug variant of the shared library (if available) for the current host (if present) in the project. This task is added by the Base Plugin.

check - Task (lifecycle)

Aggregate task that performs verification tasks, such as running the tests. Some plugins add their own verification task to check. For example, the XCTest Plugin attach his test task to this lifecycle task. This task is added by the Base Plugin.

build - Task (lifecycle)

Depends on: check, assemble :: Aggregate tasks that perform a full build of the project. This task is added by the Base Plugin.

clean - Delete

Deletes the build directory and everything in it, i.e. the path specified by the Project.getBuildDir() project property. This task is added by the Base Plugin.

Dependency management

Just like the tasks created by the Swift Library Plugin, multiple configurations are created based on the variants of the library component. Read the introduction to build variants for more information. The following graph describes the configurations added by the Swift Library Plugin:

swift library configurations
Figure 4. Swift Library Plugin configurations
  • The configurations in white are the ones a user should use to declare dependencies

  • The configurations in pink, also known as consumable denoted by (C), are the ones used when a component compiles, links, or runs against the library

  • The configurations in blue, also known as resolvable denoted by (R), are internal to the component, for its own use

The following configurations are used to declare dependencies:

api

Used for declaring API dependencies (see API vs implementation section). This is where you should declare dependencies which are transitively exported to consumers, for compile and link.

implementation extends api

Used for declaring implementation dependencies for all variants of the main component (see API vs implementation section). This is where you should declare dependencies which are purely internal and not meant to be exposed to consumers of any variants.

mainVariantImplementation (e.g. mainDebugImplementation and mainReleaseImplementation) extends implementation

Used for declaring implementation dependencies for a specific variant of the main component (see API vs implementation section). This is where you should declare dependencies which are purely internal and not meant to be exposed to consumers of this specific variant.

The following configurations are used by consumers:

variantSwiftApiElements (e.g. debugSwiftApiElements and releaseSwiftApiElements) extends mainVariantImplementation

Used for compiling against the library. This configuration is meant to be used by consumers, to retrieve all the elements necessary to compile against the library.

variantLinkElements (e.g. debugLinkElements and releaseLinkElements) extends mainVariantImplementation

Used for linking against the library. This configuration is meant to be used by consumers, to retrieve all the elements necessary to link against the library.

variantRuntimeElements (e.g. debugRuntimeElements and releaseRuntimeElements) extends `mainVariantImplementation

Used for executing the library. This configuration is meant to be used by consumers, to retrieve all the elements necessary to run against the library.

The following configurations are used by the library itself:

swiftCompileVariant (e.g. swiftCompileDebug and swiftCompileRelease) extends mainVariantImplementation

Used for compiling the library. This configuration contains the compile include roots of the library and is therefore used when invoking the Swift compiler to compile it.

nativeLinkVariant (e.g. nativeLinkDebug and nativeLinkRelease) extends mainVariantImplementation

Used for linking the library the shared library only. This configuration contains the libraries of the library and is therefore used when invoking the Swift linker to link it.

nativeRuntimeVariant (e.g. nativeRuntimeDebug and nativeRuntimeRelease) extends mainVariantImplementation

Used for executing the library. This configuration contains the runtime libraries of the library.

API vs implementation

The plugin exposes two configurations that can be used to declare dependencies: api and implementation. The api configuration should be used to declare dependencies which are exported by the library API, whereas the implementation configuration should be used to declare dependencies which are internal to the component.

Example 4. Adding dependencies
build.gradle
library {
    dependencies {
        // FIXME: Write better deps here.
        api "io.qt:core:5.1"
        implementation "io.qt:network:5.1"
    }
}
build.gradle.kts
library {
    dependencies {
        // FIXME: Put real deps here.
        api("io.qt:core:5.1")
        implementation("io.qt:network:5.1")
    }
}

Dependencies appearing in the api configurations will be transitively exposed to consumers of the library, and as such will appear on the compile include root and link libraries of consumers. Dependencies found in the implementation configuration will, on the other hand, not be exposed to consumers, and therefore not leak into the consumer’s compile include root and link libraries. This comes with several benefits:

  • dependencies do not leak into the compile include roots and link libraries of consumers, so they can never accidentally depend on a transitive dependency

  • faster compilation thanks to the reduced include roots and link libraries

  • fewer recompilations when implementation dependencies change since the consumer would not need to be recompiled

Conventions

The Swift Library Plugin adds conventions for sources and tasks, shown below.

Project layout

The Swift Library Plugin assumes the project layout shown below. None of these directories needs to exist or have anything in them. The Swift Library Plugin will compile whatever it finds and ignore anything missing.

src/main/swift

Swift source with extension of .swift

You configure the project layout by configuring the source on the library script block.

compileVariantSwift Task

The Swift Library Plugin adds a SwiftCompile instance for each variant of the library component to build (e.g. compileDebugSwift and compileReleaseSwift). Read the introduction to build variants for more information. Some of the most common configuration options are shown below.

compilerArgs

[]

debuggable

true

modules

configurations.swiftCompileVariant

macros

[]

objectFileDir

$buildDir/obj/main/variant

optimized

false for debug build type or true otherwise

source

library.swiftSource

targetPlatform

derived from the TargetMachine of the binary

toolChain

automatically selected based on target machine

The Swift Library Plugin adds a LinkSharedLibrary instance for each variant of the library containing shared linkage as a dimension - e.g. linkDebug and linkRelease. Read the introduction to build variants for more information. Some of the most common configuration options are shown below.

debuggable

true

libs

configurations.nativeLinkVariant

linkedFile

$buildDir/lib/main/variant/libModule[.so|dylib]

linkerArgs

[]

source

compileVariantSwift.objects

targetPlatform

derived from the TargetMachine of the binary

toolChain

automatically selected based on target machine

createVariant Task

The Swift Library Plugin adds a CreateStaticLibrary instance for each variant of the library containing static linkage as a dimension - e.g. createDebug and createRelease. Read the introduction to build variants for more information. Some of the most common configuration options are shown below.

outputFile

$buildDir/lib/main/variant/libModule.a

source

compileVariantSwift.objects

staticLibArgs

[]

targetPlatform

derived from the TargetMachine of the binary

toolChain

automatically selected based on target machine