Learn the basics of Project dependencies and Gradle’s dependency management.

In this section you will:

  • View dependencies in the project

  • Use and analyze a Build Scan

  • Update dependencies in the project

  • Understand transitive dependencies

Step 0. Before you Begin

  1. You initialized your Java app in part 1.

  2. You ran several tasks in part 2.

Step 1. Understanding Project Dependencies

Gradle provides excellent support for dependency management and automation.

Let’s take another look at our build script (the gradle.build file), specifically the following section:

repositories {
    // Use Maven Central for resolving dependencies.

dependencies {
    // Use JUnit test framework.

    // This dependency is used by the application.

Some key concepts in Gradle dependency management include:


The source of dependencies - mavenCentral()
Maven Central is a collection of jar files, plugins, and libraries provided by the Maven community.


Dependencies declared via configuration types - junit and guava
JUnit is a unit testing framework and Guava is a suite of core and expanded libraries from Google.

Gradle needs specific information to find a dependency. Let’s look at com.google.guava:guava:31.1-jre and junit:junit:4.13.2; they are broken down as follows:

Description com.google.guava:guava:31.1-jre junit:junit:4.13.2


identifier of an organization




dependency identifier




version # to import



Step 2. Using Build Scan

To view dependencies in our app, run the build task with an optional --scan flag.

In the tutorial directory, enter the command below and follow the prompt to accept the terms:

$ ./gradlew build --scan

7 actionable tasks: 7 up-to-date

Publishing a build scan to scans.gradle.com requires accepting the Gradle Terms of Service defined at https://gradle.com/terms-of-service. Do you accept these terms? [yes, no] yes

Gradle Terms of Service accepted.

Publishing build scan...

A Build Scan is a shareable and centralized record of a build and is available as a free service from Gradle.

Click the link provided in the prompt: https://gradle.com/s/link.

You will have to accept the terms of service to use Build Scans.

You will need to activate the Build Scan by using your email:

build scan prompt

You will receive the final link to the scan in your inbox which should look as follows:

build scan results

Open the Dependencies tab in the menu and expand compileClasspath, runtimeClasspath, testCompileClasspath, and testRuntimeClasspath:

build scan dependencies

As expected, we can see the declared dependencies junit and guava are used by Gradle to compile, run, and test the app.

Step 3. Understanding Transitive Dependencies

Expand com.google.guava:guava:31.1-jre and org.junit.jupiter:junit-jupiter:5.9.1 in the window:

build scan trans dependencies

There are several dependencies under junit and guava which are called transitive dependencies.

Transitive dependencies are the dependencies junit and guava need to work. A transitive dependency is a dependency of a dependency.

For example, the com.google.code.findbugs:jsr305:3.0.2 transitive dependency comes from the com.google.guava:guava:31.1-jre dependency.

Step 4. Viewing Project Dependencies

You can also view your dependency tree in the terminal using the ./gradlew :app:dependencies command:

$ ./gradlew :app:dependencies

> Task :app:dependencies

Project ':app'

annotationProcessor - Annotation processors and their dependencies for source set 'main'.
No dependencies

compileClasspath - Compile classpath for source set 'main'.
\--- com.google.guava:guava:31.1-jre
+--- com.google.guava:failureaccess:1.0.1
+--- com.google.guava:listenablefuture:9999.0-empty-to-avoid-conflict-with-guava
+--- com.google.code.findbugs:jsr305:3.0.2
+--- org.checkerframework:checker-qual:3.12.0
+--- com.google.errorprone:error_prone_annotations:2.11.0
\--- com.google.j2objc:j2objc-annotations:1.3


Step 4. Updating Project Dependencies

Adding and changing dependencies is done in the build file.

Let’s change the junit version and look at how this affects the dependency tree.

Change the junit dependency to the gradle.build.kts file to:


If you change the file using IntelliJ, don’t forget to click the sync Gradle button:

intellij idea dep man

Run ./gradlew build --scan and view the Build Scan results:

build scan change

Run ./gradlew :app:dependencies in the terminal to check the changes in the dependency tree:

compileClasspath - Compile classpath for source set 'main'.
\--- com.google.guava:guava:30.0-jre
     +--- com.google.guava:failureaccess:1.0.1
     +--- com.google.guava:listenablefuture:9999.0-empty-to-avoid-conflict-with-guava
     +--- com.google.code.findbugs:jsr305:3.0.2
     +--- org.checkerframework:checker-qual:3.5.0
     +--- com.google.errorprone:error_prone_annotations:2.3.4
     \--- com.google.j2objc:j2objc-annotations:1.3


It is clear the guava dependency has been updated to version 30.0 and the transitive dependencies have changed as well.

Next Step: Applying Plugins >>