The Maven Publish Plugin provides the ability to publish build artifacts to an Apache Maven repository. A module published to a Maven repository can be consumed by Maven, Gradle (see Declaring Dependencies) and other tools that understand the Maven repository format. You can learn about the fundamentals of publishing in Publishing Overview.

Usage

To use the Maven Publish Plugin, include the following in your build script:

Example 1. Applying the Maven Publish Plugin
build.gradle
plugins {
    id 'maven-publish'
}
build.gradle.kts
plugins {
    `maven-publish`
}

The Maven Publish Plugin uses an extension on the project named publishing of type PublishingExtension. This extension provides a container of named publications and a container of named repositories. The Maven Publish Plugin works with MavenPublication publications and MavenArtifactRepository repositories.

Tasks

generatePomFileForPubNamePublicationGenerateMavenPom

Creates a POM file for the publication named PubName, populating the known metadata such as project name, project version, and the dependencies. The default location for the POM file is build/publications/$pubName/pom-default.xml.

publishPubNamePublicationToRepoNameRepositoryPublishToMavenRepository

Publishes the PubName publication to the repository named RepoName. If you have a repository definition without an explicit name, RepoName will be "Maven".

publishPubNamePublicationToMavenLocalPublishToMavenLocal

Copies the PubName publication to the local Maven cache — typically $USER_HOME/.m2/repository — along with the publication’s POM file and other metadata.

publish

Depends on: All publishPubNamePublicationToRepoNameRepository tasks

An aggregate task that publishes all defined publications to all defined repositories. It does not include copying publications to the local Maven cache.

publishToMavenLocal

Depends on: All publishPubNamePublicationToMavenLocal tasks

Copies all defined publications to the local Maven cache, including their metadata (POM files, etc.).

Publications

This plugin provides publications of type MavenPublication. To learn how to define and use publications, see the section on basic publishing.

There are four main things you can configure in a Maven publication:

You can see all of these in action in the complete publishing example. The API documentation for MavenPublication has additional code samples.

Identity values in the generated POM

The attributes of the generated POM file will contain identity values derived from the following project properties:

Overriding the default identity values is easy: simply specify the groupId, artifactId or version attributes when configuring the MavenPublication.

Example 2. Customizing the publication identity
build.gradle
    publishing {
        publications {
            maven(MavenPublication) {
                groupId = 'org.gradle.sample'
                artifactId = 'project1-sample'
                version = '1.1'

                from components.java
            }
        }
    }
build.gradle.kts
    publishing {
        publications {
            create<MavenPublication>("maven") {
                groupId = "org.gradle.sample"
                artifactId = "project1-sample"
                version = "1.1"

                from(components["java"])
            }
        }
    }
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Certain repositories will not be able to handle all supported characters. For example, the : character cannot be used as an identifier when publishing to a filesystem-backed repository on Windows.

Maven restricts groupId and artifactId to a limited character set ([A-Za-z0-9_\\-.]+) and Gradle enforces this restriction. For version (as well as the artifact extension and classifier properties), Gradle will handle any valid Unicode character.

The only Unicode values that are explicitly prohibited are \, / and any ISO control character. Supplied values are validated early in publication.

Customizing the generated POM

The generated POM file can be customized before publishing. For example, when publishing a library to Maven Central you will need to set certain metadata. The Maven Publish Plugin provides a DSL for that purpose. Please see MavenPom in the DSL Reference for the complete documentation of available properties and methods. The following sample shows how to use the most common ones:

Example 3. Customizing the POM file
build.gradle
publishing {
    publications {
        mavenJava(MavenPublication) {
            pom {
                name = 'My Library'
                description = 'A concise description of my library'
                url = 'http://www.example.com/library'
                licenses {
                    license {
                        name = 'The Apache License, Version 2.0'
                        url = 'http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0.txt'
                    }
                }
                developers {
                    developer {
                        id = 'johnd'
                        name = 'John Doe'
                        email = 'john.doe@example.com'
                    }
                }
                scm {
                    connection = 'scm:git:git://example.com/my-library.git'
                    developerConnection = 'scm:git:ssh://example.com/my-library.git'
                    url = 'http://example.com/my-library/'
                }
            }
        }
    }
}
build.gradle.kts
publishing {
    publications {
        create<MavenPublication>("mavenJava") {
            pom {
                name.set("My Library")
                description.set("A concise description of my library")
                url.set("http://www.example.com/library")
                licenses {
                    license {
                        name.set("The Apache License, Version 2.0")
                        url.set("http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0.txt")
                    }
                }
                developers {
                    developer {
                        id.set("johnd")
                        name.set("John Doe")
                        email.set("john.doe@example.com")
                    }
                }
                scm {
                    connection.set("scm:git:git://example.com/my-library.git")
                    developerConnection.set("scm:git:ssh://example.com/my-library.git")
                    url.set("http://example.com/my-library/")
                }
            }
        }
    }
}

Repositories

This plugin provides repositories of type MavenArtifactRepository. To learn how to define and use repositories for publishing, see the section on basic publishing.

Here’s a simple example of defining a publishing repository:

Example 4. Declaring repositories to publish to
build.gradle
publishing {
    repositories {
        maven {
            // change to point to your repo, e.g. http://my.org/repo
            url = "$buildDir/repo"
        }
    }
}
build.gradle.kts
publishing {
    repositories {
        maven {
            // change to point to your repo, e.g. http://my.org/repo
            url = uri("$buildDir/repo")
        }
    }
}

The two main things you will want to configure are the repository’s:

  • URL (required)

  • Name (optional)

You can define multiple repositories as long as they have unique names within the build script. You may also declare one (and only one) repository without a name. That repository will take on an implicit name of "Maven".

You can also configure any authentication details that are required to connect to the repository. See MavenArtifactRepository for more details.

Snapshot and release repositories

It is a common practice to publish snapshots and releases to different Maven repositories. A simple way to accomplish this is to configure the repository URL based on the project version. The following sample uses one URL for versions that end with "SNAPSHOT" and a different URL for the rest:

Example 5. Configuring repository URL based on project version
build.gradle
publishing {
    repositories {
        maven {
            def releasesRepoUrl = "$buildDir/repos/releases"
            def snapshotsRepoUrl = "$buildDir/repos/snapshots"
            url = version.endsWith('SNAPSHOT') ? snapshotsRepoUrl : releasesRepoUrl
        }
    }
}
build.gradle.kts
publishing {
    repositories {
        maven {
            val releasesRepoUrl = "$buildDir/repos/releases"
            val snapshotsRepoUrl = "$buildDir/repos/snapshots"
            url = uri(if (version.toString().endsWith("SNAPSHOT")) snapshotsRepoUrl else releasesRepoUrl)
        }
    }
}

Similarly, you can use a project or system property to decide which repository to publish to. The following example uses the release repository if the project property release is set, such as when a user runs gradle -Prelease publish:

Example 6. Configuring repository URL based on project property
build.gradle
publishing {
    repositories {
        maven {
            def releasesRepoUrl = "$buildDir/repos/releases"
            def snapshotsRepoUrl = "$buildDir/repos/snapshots"
            url = project.hasProperty('release') ? releasesRepoUrl : snapshotsRepoUrl
        }
    }
}
build.gradle.kts
publishing {
    repositories {
        maven {
            val releasesRepoUrl = "$buildDir/repos/releases"
            val snapshotsRepoUrl = "$buildDir/repos/snapshots"
            url = uri(if (project.hasProperty("release")) releasesRepoUrl else snapshotsRepoUrl)
        }
    }
}

Publishing to Maven Local

For integration with a local Maven installation, it is sometimes useful to publish the module into the Maven local repository (typically at $USER_HOME/.m2/repository), along with its POM file and other metadata. In Maven parlance, this is referred to as 'installing' the module.

The Maven Publish Plugin makes this easy to do by automatically creating a PublishToMavenLocal task for each MavenPublication in the publishing.publications container. The task name follows the pattern of publishPubNamePublicationToMavenLocal. Each of these tasks is wired into the publishToMavenLocal aggregate task. You do not need to have mavenLocal() in your publishing.repositories section.

Complete example

The following example demonstrates how to sign and publish a Java library including sources, Javadoc, and a customized POM:

Example 7. Publishing a Java library
build.gradle
plugins {
    id 'java-library'
    id 'maven-publish'
    id 'signing'
}

group = 'com.example'
version = '1.0'

task sourcesJar(type: Jar) {
    from sourceSets.main.allJava
    classifier = 'sources'
}

task javadocJar(type: Jar) {
    from javadoc
    classifier = 'javadoc'
}

publishing {
    publications {
        mavenJava(MavenPublication) {
            artifactId = 'my-library'
            from components.java
            artifact sourcesJar
            artifact javadocJar
            pom {
                name = 'My Library'
                description = 'A concise description of my library'
                url = 'http://www.example.com/library'
                licenses {
                    license {
                        name = 'The Apache License, Version 2.0'
                        url = 'http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0.txt'
                    }
                }
                developers {
                    developer {
                        id = 'johnd'
                        name = 'John Doe'
                        email = 'john.doe@example.com'
                    }
                }
                scm {
                    connection = 'scm:git:git://example.com/my-library.git'
                    developerConnection = 'scm:git:ssh://example.com/my-library.git'
                    url = 'http://example.com/my-library/'
                }
            }
        }
    }
    repositories {
        maven {
            // change URLs to point to your repos, e.g. http://my.org/repo
            def releasesRepoUrl = "$buildDir/repos/releases"
            def snapshotsRepoUrl = "$buildDir/repos/snapshots"
            url = version.endsWith('SNAPSHOT') ? snapshotsRepoUrl : releasesRepoUrl
        }
    }
}

signing {
    sign publishing.publications.mavenJava
}


javadoc {
    if(JavaVersion.current().isJava9Compatible()) {
        options.addBooleanOption('html5', true)
    }
}
build.gradle.kts
plugins {
    `java-library`
    `maven-publish`
    signing
}

group = "com.example"
version = "1.0"

task<Jar>("sourcesJar") {
    from(sourceSets.main.get().allJava)
    classifier = "sources"
}

task<Jar>("javadocJar") {
    from(tasks.javadoc)
    classifier = "javadoc"
}

publishing {
    publications {
        create<MavenPublication>("mavenJava") {
            artifactId = "my-library"
            from(components["java"])
            artifact(tasks["sourcesJar"])
            artifact(tasks["javadocJar"])
            pom {
                name.set("My Library")
                description.set("A concise description of my library")
                url.set("http://www.example.com/library")
                licenses {
                    license {
                        name.set("The Apache License, Version 2.0")
                        url.set("http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0.txt")
                    }
                }
                developers {
                    developer {
                        id.set("johnd")
                        name.set("John Doe")
                        email.set("john.doe@example.com")
                    }
                }
                scm {
                    connection.set("scm:git:git://example.com/my-library.git")
                    developerConnection.set("scm:git:ssh://example.com/my-library.git")
                    url.set("http://example.com/my-library/")
                }
            }
        }
    }
    repositories {
        maven {
            // change URLs to point to your repos, e.g. http://my.org/repo
            val releasesRepoUrl = uri("$buildDir/repos/releases")
            val snapshotsRepoUrl = uri("$buildDir/repos/snapshots")
            url = if (version.toString().endsWith("SNAPSHOT")) snapshotsRepoUrl else releasesRepoUrl
        }
    }
}

signing {
    sign(publishing.publications["mavenJava"])
}

tasks.javadoc {
    if (JavaVersion.current().isJava9Compatible) {
        (options as StandardJavadocDocletOptions).addBooleanOption("html5", true)
    }
}

The result is that the following artifacts will be published:

  • The POM: my-library-1.0.pom

  • The primary JAR artifact for the Java component: my-library-1.0.jar

  • The sources JAR artifact that has been explicitly configured: my-library-1.0-sources.jar

  • The Javadoc JAR artifact that has been explicitly configured: my-library-1.0-javadoc.jar

The Signing Plugin is used to generate a signature file for each artifact. In addition, checksum files will be generated for all artifacts and signature files.

Removal of deferred configuration behavior

Prior to Gradle 5.0, the publishing {} block was (by default) implicitly treated as if all the logic inside it was executed after the project is evaluated. This behavior caused quite a bit of confusion and was deprecated in Gradle 4.8, because it was the only block that behaved that way.

You may have some logic inside your publishing block or in a plugin that is depending on the deferred configuration behavior. For instance, the following logic assumes that the subprojects will be evaluated when the artifactId is set:

build.gradle
subprojects {
    publishing {
        publications {
            mavenJava(MavenPublication) {
                from components.java
                artifactId = jar.baseName
            }
        }
    }
}
build.gradle.kts
subprojects {
    publishing {
        publications {
            create<MavenPublication>("mavenJava") {
                from(components["java"])
                artifactId = tasks.jar.get().baseName
            }
        }
    }
}

This kind of logic must now be wrapped in an afterEvaluate {} block.

build.gradle
subprojects {
    publishing {
        publications {
            mavenJava(MavenPublication) {
                from components.java
                afterEvaluate {
                    artifactId = jar.baseName
                }
            }
        }
    }
}
build.gradle.kts
subprojects {
    publishing {
        publications {
            create<MavenPublication>("mavenJava") {
                from(components["java"])
                afterEvaluate {
                    artifactId = tasks.jar.get().baseName
                }
            }
        }
    }
}